Symbols

Servant Leadership for Congregations

Stained Glass
Jesus said to them, "Whoever wants to be first must place himself last of all and be the servant of all." (Mark 9:35)
You should look on us as Christ's servants who have been put in charge of God's secret truths. (1 Corinthians 4:1)
"The servant-leader is servant first. It begins with the natural feeling that one wants to serve. Then conscious choice brings one to aspire to lead. The best test is: do those served grow as persons; do they, while being served, become healthier, wiser, freer, more autonomous, more likely themselves to become servants?" -Robert K. Greenleaf, The Servant as a Leader, 1970

Welcome

There is no finer management concept than that of the servant leader, none more essential to organizational well-being. Servant Leadership for Congregations extends the concept to Christian congregations, a natural bonding exemplified by Christ. Servant Leadership in its entirety is freely available on this website for downloading and printing. We encourage reproduction and secondary distribution within and among congregations, in whole or in part, requesting only that any charges imposed not exceed the costs of printing, binding, and mailing. Reproduction for resale is not authorized.

We would like to hear from you and welcome your comments and recommendations. Please address correspondence to: Kent Halstead, 1200 N. Nash St. 1112, Arlington, VA 22209.

Servant Leadership Defined

Servant leadership for Christian congregations is defined "as a democratic philosophy of guiding stewardship that values the responsibilities, interests, and abilities of all affected parties, and actively encourages their full involvement in planning and decision-making through study and open discussion toward consensus. The Christian servant leader is one who, recognizing God's sovereign will over all, leaps to do that will with the help of the Holy Spirit."

Book Description

Servant Leadership is organized in two divisions. The first, The Christian Servant Leader, presents the nature of the servant as a congregational leader, together with the impact on basic management functions. The second, Functional Responsibilities, a primer on application, reports ways in which the various church functions may be affected by servant leadership.

The volume's 23 chapters and three appendices are listed below. You need only click on the heading to retrieve a chapter for review and printing. (Note the chapters are best viewed by setting "View" to "Print Layout.") We believe you will find the entire book informative and useful. However, you are free to choose according to your own interests and needs.

The book's full table of contents is listed at the end of this website. It identifies all the component parts of the volume, invaluable in locating specific subject matter. We encourage printing and distributing these six pages to your church officers as the best means of conveying the breadth and value of the volume

Book

While the Servant Leadership for Congregations text may be viewed on this website, a hard copy is judged essential for readily available, practical use. We strongly recommend purchase of the 426 page soft-cover edition at Amazon.com/books for $13.50 plus shipping. The publisherís compensation is used to provide complimentary copies to visited congregations.

Click here to order at www.amazon.com We encourage readers to complete a "Customer Review" also located on the Amazon website. Thank you.

Servant Leadership For Congregations

Kent Halstead

Preface, Acknowledgements, Contents (11 pp.)

The Christian Servant Leader

  1. Introduction (5 pp.)
  2. About Congregations (8 pp.)

Part I. Concept and Spirituality of Servant Leadership

  1. The Concept of the Servant as a Leader (9 pp.)
  2. The Priesthood of All Believers (5 pp.)

Part II. The Nature of Servant Leadership

  1. Bible Guidance and Derived Principles (13 pp.)
  2. Personal Dimensions of the Servant Leader (12 pp.)
  3. Peremptory Authority (10 pp.)
  4. Core Elements for Leading/Managing (24 pp.)

Part III. Church Structure and Leadership Roles

  1. Statements and Organization (18 pp.)
  2. Leadership Roles (29 pp.)

Part IV. Leadership in Practice

  1. Communications and Planning (16 pp.)
  2. How to Conduct Meetings and Reach Decisions (11 pp.)

Functional Responsibilities

Part V. Worship

  1. The Worship Service (20 pp.)
  2. New Needs, New Responses (20 pp.)
  3. The Spoken Word and Prayer (31 pp.)

Part VI. Discipleship

  1. Parish Life (9 pp.)
  2. Small Group Ministries (11 pp.)
  3. Christian Education (10 pp.)
  4. Our Call to Stewardship (24 pp.)
  5. Evangelism - Basics and the Inreaching Responsibility (16 pp.)
  6. Evangelism - the Outreaching Challenge (22 pp.)
  7. Community Ministry (7 pp.)
  8. Administration and Property (7 pp.)

Appendices

  1. Christian Music (7 pp.)
  2. Job Descriptions (16 pp.)
  3. The Renewal Reader (21 pp.)

Add Our Site Address

You may wish to bring Servant Leadership to the attention of all your members by adding our site address to your church's website as instructed below. We thank you for this broadcasting.

  1. Enter your website management program such as Microsoft Frontpage and open your church website.
  2. Locate on your website where you would like to place our site address. Type our web address http://www.servantleadershipbook.org (no underlining ncessary).
  3. Adjacent to the address write a short explanation of our site to assist your readers. For example:

    "Servant Leadership for Congregations advances the principles and application of leading as a servant as the exemplary model for church leaders. The book in its entirety is freely available on this website for reading and printing. Twenty-one chapters, 392 pages, detailed table of contents."

Printing Servant Leadership Chapters

The typical procedure for printing on both sides of each paper sheet:

  1. Print odd number pages (1, 3, 5...).
  2. Place printed pages face up in reverse order (page 5 on top, then 3, then 1).
  3. Turn stack upside down (printed side down) and place in feeder tray with top of printed pages directed into printer.
  4. print even number pages (2, 4, 6...).

On this basis, the 400 or so page Servant Leadership book will require about 200 sheets of paper costing roughly $4.00. You may wish to save your initial copy as a master for making additional copies.

* * * * * * * * * * *

The Servant Leadership for Congregations book presented on this web site is necessarily detailed, extending to 381 pages. Here, on this introduction, we emphasize the congregationís key responsibility for seeking perfection in all things. This admonition and means for proceeding concludes with a listing of opportunities for improvement that every congregation should prayerfully consider.

THE RESPONSIBILITY FOR SEEKING PERFECTION

Be perfect, therefore, as your heavenly Father is perfect. (Matthew 5:48)

Our heavenly Father does not ask what is beyond our means. So enabled we move forward with confidence knowing we will be guided by the Holy Spirit and strengthened sufficient for any task.

The Commission and Our Enabling Strength

Be shepherds of the church of God, which he made his own through the death of his own Son. (Acts 20:28)

The church is Godís spiritual body, commissioned to build his kingdom, strengthened and enabled by the Holy Spirit with all necessary wisdom and power. So aided, we strive for excellence in all church responsibilities-in preserving and enriching worship, in interpreting and teaching the Bible, in serving others, and in extending Godís word.

Yet despite this favor, our humanness invariably interferes, leading to misdirection, neglect, and failure. Thus it is incumbent for each of us to strive mightily to serve God to the utmost of our ability, perfecting his church in all ways possible, always humbly and dependent on the Holy Spirit, prayer, and Scripture.

And we know that in all things, God works for the good of those who love him, who have been called according to His purpose. (Romans 8:28 NIV)

Central Responsibilities

And God has appointed in the church first apostles, second prophets, third teachers; then deeds of power, then gifts of healing, forms of assistance, forms of leadership, various kinds of tongues. (1 Corinthians 12:28)

Duties and authority are commonly well structured within the Christian church. The missing element is typically inattentiveness and performance failure. Responsibilities remain unassigned or simply neglected. To assist in re-focusing our attention, we list here the central duties of the three major church entities-the congregation, the clergy, and lay leadership, the latter including such essential but often neglected components as small groups, ombudsman, pulpit advisory, and trustee study group.

Congregation member responsibilities-
  1. Regularly attend worship services and participate in communion.
  2. Continue in spiritual growth through Christian education.
  3. Lead a prayerful life full of joy and thanksgiving.
  4. Love and care for fellow members and mankind everywhere.
  5. Witness in spreading the gospel.
  6. Care for and support the church through personal leadership, service, and financial commitment.
Clergy responsibilities to members and visitors-
  1. Provide meaningful worship services, sermon content, communion, catechism instruction, and church rites.
  2. Serve as an ad hoc member and spiritual counselor and advisor to all church organizational entities. The pastorís guidance is the cornerstone on which a strong church structure is built.
  3. Know and care for all members individually and personally as a shepherd.
  4. Be especially attentive to the presence and needs of visitors and new members, the ill and infirm, the impoverished, and those in mourning.
Church council responsibilities to members-
  1. Provide a broad Christian education program including leadership training and short courses, extending personal invitations to all members.
  2. Cultivate and develop each memberís unique talents and involvement through personal interviews and continued dialogue and encouragement.
  3. Extend leadership opportunities to every member-to the least individual.
  4. Provide a suitable array of service opportunities for members and cultivate their involvement.
  5. Visit, counsel, and aid members needing assistance.
  6. Warmly welcome and nourish visitors in the faith.
  7. Develop a church-wide system of small informal friendship groups ensuring that every church member is assigned membership and becomes actively involved.
  8. Ensure effective communications throughout the church organization including encouragement and receptive listening to constructive criticism. Establish the role of ombudsman as may be warranted.
  9. Establish an independent trustee study group commissioned to investigate church issues of their choice and prepare associated analytical papers. The role here is that of study not advocacy. Papers may include topics such as mission priorities, effectiveness of resource use, and local considerations in strategic planning.
  10. When warranted, maintain a pulpit advisory group to assess and advise the pastor(s) regarding sermon content and delivery.

The Leadership Challenge

Since you are eager to have spiritual gifts, try to excel in gifts that build up the church. (1 Corinthians 14:12)

How well are churches led today? The basic strengths are all in place-our pastors are trained and dedicated, well attending the congregation flock and more often than not, leading inspiring worship services. Congregations through elected officers are invariably involved in an array of programs centered on Christian education, youth, and service to others. Visitors are traditionally welcome. And congregations serve as the financial backbone of the church.

On the weakness side, the challenge is overriding complacency, satisfaction with the status quo. In varying degrees, deep-rooted, seemingly intractable, contentment is the bane of modern day congregations. Quite simply, there is little recognition of our deficiencies and basically no call for perfection. Rather than satisfaction and possibly even pride in our accomplishments, we should, of course, be on our knees admitting and attending to our deficiencies while imploring Godís help and forgiveness.

There is no greater refuge against change than reliance on current success. Over time congregations tend to gradually accept the status quo as "reasonable under present conditions." This is seldom a deliberate attitude, simply a gradual slide into complacency, lulled by year-to-year consistency. Eventually a sense of well-being evolves, occasionally progressing even to a point of distrust for things "new" or "creative." A shield is erected. "Weíre doing all we can and weíre doing it reasonably well, thank you." This attitude is invariably supported by hesitant, cautious governance. New, possibly "risky" ideas are easily rejected as "untested" or "inappropriate." They may even be interpreted as implied criticism. Thus we find that entrenched, satisfied, and protective leaders are the single most difficult obstacle to church improvement.

Closely allied are the inevitably present nay-sayers and skeptics who interpret or associate difficulties, obstacles, or pitfalls with seemingly every suggestion, dooming new ideas from the very start. "What are we letting ourselves in for?" The comfort zone of anxious congregations is extremely small compared to the expanded horizons of congregations at the "cutting edge" of Christianity.

Finally, we have the rare but occasional condition of pastoral dominance and the typically associated absence of creative lay leadership. Conservative pastors, especially those on short tours, are inclined to avoid rocking the boat. Others, comfortably entrenched, may be susceptible to running a taut ship with limited allowance for innovation. Elected laity in their brief leadership tenure may also be disappointingly cautious. With such top-level inertia, introducing change can be difficult indeed.

Strategies for Improvement

Therefore, prepare your minds for action . . . (1 Peter 1:13)

Among management consultants there appears consensus that the root causes of organizational reluctance to improve lie deep in the human psyche with no known sure cure. But in contrast, within the church, believing in Godís protective care and guidance, all things are possible. Therefore these remedial actions can be advanced with confidence:


Proposal Review

So much of what is done to improve the church is initiated and enacted during council meetings that a closing bit of advice regarding the optimal climate for properly reviewing new proposals should be in place.

CHALLENGES

And I heard the voice of the Lord saying, Whom shall I send, and who will go for us? Then I said, Here am I; send me. (Isaiah 6:8)

In the context of the foregoing discussion, we are bold to suggest the following means of caring for and building up Godís church. All are well known, all are easily within the capabilities of every church. Some, of course, will be less suitable in a given situation than others, yet all warrant prayerful consideration. And for church members seeking new service, "Is there not an opportunity here for you to be an advocate?"

Note: Each suggestion lists related topic material in Servant Leadership for Congregations at http://www.servantleadershipbook.org.

Leadership


  1. Extend leadership opportunities to all. Christian leadership is a singularly rewarding and privileged means of service. Such honor should be extended to as many congregants as possible, even to the very least person.
          The church should abound in leadership opportunities. This breadth can be achieved by delegating authority to the lowest possible echelon, reducing terms of service, and by expanding council membership. Delegating authority stimulates leadership, forcing it to surface often in the most unexpected ways. Shorter two rather than three-year terms increase opportunities by 50 percent. Expanding a council of 20 to 30 members does the same. And, of course, no individual member should receive a second high appointment until the entire membership roster has been exhausted. A record of "positions held" can be maintained for this purpose. Previous leaders typically find challenging opportunities wherever positioned, often valuably cultivating leadership in others.
          In the rare instances of possible marginal performance, appointments can be augmented by supporting assistants of proven capacity. Better to delegate too broadly and extend leadership, than husband authority and deny such service to the deserving. (Chapter 5, pages 7 - 8)

  2. Encourage candidacy for major offices, not direct appointment. "Safe" appointments discourage initiative and creativity. With shorter terms of office, the church ought to be willing occasionally to chance "dynamic potential" as well as "ensured consistency." There are probably few congregations where at least one member has not privately said at one time or another, "If only I could get hold of this church for a year!"
          Open positions should be announced and members encouraged to apply. Candidates for council president should expect to be interviewed, and be prepared with their "platform" of plans and proposals. (Chapter 10, pages 5 - 6)

  3. Train the president-elect and senior officers. Most elected congregational presidents and senior officers are simply installed, beginning their office with virtually no preparation other than what their own past experience provides. Church offices, however, are unique and of considerable consequence when performed well. Unfortunately, a good share of todayís church inertia stems from untrained ultimately marginal lay leadership. Church-specific training will make new presidents and other senior officers much more effective and more comfortable in their position as well. (Chapters 3, 6, 7, 8, 10)

  4. Foster democracy; encourage and fairly attend to criticism and minority positions. Congregations, foremost among organizations, are accountable to the principles of social equality and respect for the individual. Members are the inherent human element of the church, its mortal foundation. Leaders must consequently extend themselves in soliciting the congregationís advice and opinions. Open and free debate must be encouraged; dissention and the minority position openly recognized and honored. Unanimity and harmony need never be an overriding factor.
          A democratic congregation may on occasion appropriately accommodate a conflicting minority position, usually on a trial basis. More often than not such testing proves instructive. Who can say in advance with certainty that one proposal is clearly superior to another? (Chapter 5, pages 8 - 9 and 11 - 12; Chapter 7, p. 9; Chapter 11, pages 4 - 6)

  5. Distinguish between the roles of the pastor and congregation president. The pastor is the congregationís spiritual leader; the elected lay president its chief executive officer. While the exact division between the two positions will vary, congregations should be alert to perceived infringements. The respective roles need to be spelled out in reasonable detail, always recognizing the encompassing nature of pastoral responsibilities. Pastors must be forthright in interpreting and advancing Godís will for the congregation. Lay presidents, for their part, should never be hesitant in rigorously leading; always seeking in every instance pastoral guidance and harmony. (Chapter 4, page 4; Chapter 10, pages 9 - 13)

  6. Encourage and strengthen the pastor as the spiritual leader. We love our shepherd pastors and must accordingly treat them as the treasured resource they are. This means supporting and accommodating their special interests and talents, and providing lay augmentation as may be consequentially necessary. Pastors are also strengthened by appreciative congregations, allotting time for prayer, education, and sabbatical leave. (Chapter 10, pages 9 - 14)

Management


  1. Prepare, broadcast, and observe statements of mission, core values, and operating principles. After Scripture, prayer, and pastoral counsel, congregational actions are best guided by deliberate founding statements which give shape and definition to the churchís ministry. All must be constructed with the greatest of care and reviewed and updated periodically as may be required (see #10). Mission is the central focus of effort and funds (see "Mission" section for special opportunities). Core values are the standards and qualities the congregation deems essential in focusing behavior. Operating principles are the policies and rules that guide action. (Chapter 8, page 8; Chapter 9)

  2. Prepare a written council agenda and distribute to members in advance of scheduled meetings. Meetings are time-consuming and less productive when attention is devoted to presenting and explaining content that could be communicated earlier. Prepared participants are generally effective participants. Problems to be discussed, the circumstances involved, and the advantages and disadvantages of alternative responses, should all be distributed, whenever possible, in advance. Routine matters need simply be outlined together with recommended action. Such preparation largely frees the meeting for its central purpose, the give-and-take of analysis, debate, and decision. (Chapter 12, page 2)

  3. Employ a trained moderator to conduct council meetings and free the president to actively lead and instruct. A moderator clarifies issues, facilitates discussion, and effectively sums up, all performed without bias or influence. Selectively freed of these responsibilities allows the president to lead as the position requires, directing and encouraging, not shackled by restrictive presiding duties. Moderating is a full-time task for any congregation member, requiring specialized training. (Ch 12)

  4. Conduct annual self-audits as a standard year-end responsibility of appointed officers. Perfection is our goal. A yearly review is an inherent concluding responsibility of elected leadership. The critique typically begins with a re-evaluation of church statements and policy in the light of recent operations. Actual accomplishments may be compared with stated priorities. Effective versus apparently marginal operations may be distinguished. Recommendations are essential. The yearly audit is relatively brief and perfunctory compared to the more extended work an appointed self-studies team may undertake. (#11).
          Incumbent officers are generally pleased to report their successes and broaden the responsibility for resolving persistent problems. (Chapter 5, p. 6)

  5. Establish a permanent independent assembly to conduct self-studies and planning. This groupís mission is to strive for excellence in all things by energetically seeking out and responding to advice and recommendations from every available source. The responsibility is largely academic in nature, essentially one of rigorous and impartial investigation, study, and reporting. The group sets its own agenda and timetable. Former church officers are typically good candidates for such a commission, so also are a congregationís "academics." Give them free rein. (Chapter 10, page 14; Chapter 11, page 9)

  6. Prepare and continuously upgrade job descriptions of all key church positions. Position descriptions establish responsibilities and record proven methodology. They are an essential training device for new appointees. (Chapter 8, page 9; Chapter 9, page 17; Appendix B)

  7. Maintain a reference library of essential works in each church functional area together with required reading lists for elected positions. No church officer or teacher should be unfamiliar with the literature in their assigned area or field of interest. Required reading is an essential element of good management.

Membership


  1. Maintain records of member qualifications, participation, and attendance. Detailed member information assists in identifying individuals for leadership positions, training, and as candidates for specific services. The "lost sheep" of the congregation can only be found if their absence is promptly recognized and addressed. The underutilized non-participant can only be "discovered" if such lack of involvement is duly noted and remedied. Computer records with various retrieval parameters are the best means for identifying these conditions for corrective action. (Chapter 5, page 7; Chapter 16)

  2. Maintain a caring personal relationship with all members, especially those marginally attending. We must treat every member as a treasured individual, continuously reaching out with friendship. Embrace the neglected with the warmth you may now reserve for your personal friends.
          Amazingly, a person can be a church member all their lives and never be individually contacted regarding their personal concerns and needs. One observer jokingly referred to the Boy Scouts as more concerned with his involvement than the church.
          The self-reliant are sufficiently bold to assert their own way. The non-participant is the one needing our attention. And this mindfulness can be best provided through membership in a small group (#16). Yet some members will remain isolated, requiring personal contact. Such overtures should be as constructive and convenient as possible, beginning, for example, simply with casual conversation after church. The idea is to recognize and respond to members as individuals.
          Departing members should also be contacted, not only as a courtesy but, in this instance, for their observations.

  3. Encourage and support every member participation in small groups under trained leadership to foster intimate interaction and a sense of belonging, especially among new and marginal members. Small groups meet periodically to share their Christian experience and provide mutual support. They have no other mission; no agenda except love and caring. Most church members live their entire lives with no opportunity to speak openly and frankly with others who know them and care. Group action provides this open supportive environment for each participant. (Chapter 17)

  4. Extend a warm personal and sincere greeting and welcome to all visitors. All are welcome in Godís house. Friendship should abound, no visitor unattended, no member neglected. Greeters should be instructed on the breadth and importance of their duties. Name tags greatly ease interaction.

  5. Encourage charitable giving of oneself and oneís resources. The Christian spirit of giving is one of joy, thankfulness, generosity, and anonymity. Yet we all crave a certain amount of tangibility and recognition. Perhaps the best manner of approaching this conundrum is through a personal interview (#15) with each member, striving to obtain a thoughtful, generous, and balanced contribution, tailored to the individualís circumstances and preferences. Thus a busy executive, for example, may be well satisfied with a large general purpose cash donation while a single parent may only afford limited service in the day-school. Through counseling and prayer each gift is made pleasing in Godís sight.

Communications


  1. Establish the role of ombudsman to encourage and support communication. Church issues are often sensitive and suppressed. The minority may be cowered by the majority. An ombudsman is an impartial intermediary, trained to receptively listen to problems and effectively convey their nature to appropriate offices. By interceding in difficult matters with patience and understanding, the ombudsman lessens internal conflicts. Most importantly, the ombudsman establishes the value of the individual. (Chapter 8, page 19; Chapter 11, pages 6 - 8)

  2. Build and maintain continuous open dialog within the congregation at all levels and among all offices. Church management is invariably handled by a representative few, with a majority of members out of the loop. This isolation can be countered by keeping the congregation informed regarding pending issues and the responses under consideration. So included, members are more likely to feel part of the process, encouraging active involvement. And leaders can go so far as to ask the opinions of others regarding current topics. How encouraging that would be, to actually have someone ask your opinion! Yet most parishioners will pass their entire church lifetime without such involvement. On these small things great allegiance is built. (Chapter 5, page 11)

  3. Establish a pulpit advisory group to recommend sermon topics. The laity advisory group assists the pastor in assessing the spiritual needs of the congregation and in providing an interactive point of contact. Popularly labeled "market research," identifying the parishioner consumerís needs and preferences should be an automatic input in developing sermon content. Unfortunately, such assistance is seldom sought, possibly from some sense of necessary independence. Yet seeking guidance from all sources should be recognized as the height of professionalism. (Chapter 13, page 8; Chapter 15, page 7)

  4. Prepare annual reports to effectively convey both specifics and the totality of church operations. Exclusions and failures should be as evident in the annual report as involvements and successes. Congregations need to be repeatedly aroused to improve, not lulled into complacency. Clarity in all reports is also essential especially regarding finances. Church finances and membership information are best communicated through ratios and trend charts of key measurements. Overall, a one-page annual summary of operational pluses and minus should be provided every member, asking for their commentary. (Chapter 19, pages 16 - 20; Chapter 23, pages 4 - 5)

Missions


  1. Review and realign mission priorities each year. The churchís limited resources should always be focused on their most productive employment. The ratio of returns to costs must be weighed in each instance, transferring resources from marginally less effective programs to those appearing more fruitful. We do this subconsciously every day in making personal decisions. The church on the other hand, as with any major enterprise, requires a more deliberate effort. Yet the process is invariably gradual, with slight shifts each year. When funds decline, however, the action may be quite pronounced, with considerable care taken to cut what appears least required. Steady and increasing budgets on the other hand seldom prompt critical review, each program typically being well defended by its advocates. In such instances the council must take action, requiring and comparing each committeeís least productive expenditures, shifting resources accordingly as the evidence suggests. (Chapter 9, pages 6 - 10)

  2. Emphasize evangelism as the great commission. Evangelism is too often fostered off as the mission of sponsored missionaries or neglected altogether due to its inherent difficulty. And there is the self-deceptive defense that social work is, after all, a form of evangelism. Although true to a degree, the core of evangelism is not meeting social and physical needs, it is going forth to persuasively bring Godís word into hearts and minds.
          No church work is more difficult, seemingly unproductive, and occasionally uncomfortable. Yet the mandate is clear and the potential harvest great. To begin, a few committed leaders must be found, then volunteers gathered and trained. Initial work should be focused on retrieving marginal members, ensuring their nurturing through small group membership. Eventually, field work can be initiated with "lessons learned" a vital tool for improvement. (Chapters 20 and 21)

  3. Experiment in developing new programs and creative approaches to worship. The opportunities here are beyond measure, but are typically restricted by the congregationís predisposition toward the common and familiar. A little newness seems to go a long way. Thus it is best to introduce changes moderately and temporarily, allowing time for assimilation and possible approval.
          Experimentation is the watchword. Never reject anything out-of-hand for God works in mysterious ways. Testing on a trial basis is so little a commitment and so effective in evaluation, it is a pity that such an innocuous tool is not more frequently employed. (Chapters 13 and 14)

  4. Encourage choir membership by allowing limited involvement with reduced rehearsal time. The idea here is to attract marginally interested or available candidates into the choir by requiring minimal personal commitment. Such involvement is part-time, attendance with the regular choir typically scheduled no more than once a month, commonly at a single service with proportional limited rehearsals. (Chapter 13)

  5. Develop a core Sunday school curriculum for adults. A carefully designed core curriculum ensures adults the opportunity for a comprehensive Christian education. Essential studies typically require a number of years to complete and are generally offered as the need arises. The core curriculum is not intended to be in competition with current popular studies. Course offerings are provided as the need arises, but it is important to recognize that far too many Christians lack the fundamentals beginning with the Catechism. (Chapter 18, page 6)

  6. Employ short-term courses of a few weeks duration to introduce new topics, update training, and create interest. Short dynamic courses of four to six weeks are attractive, particularly to congregation members out of the main stream and those unwilling or unable to make a greater commitment. The topics should be as interesting and engaging as possible, taught foremost through discussion. Once enrolled, participants are often "hooked" for continuing involvement. Short-term classes should always be held at the most convenient times and places such as Sunday morning between church services. (Chapter 18, page 6)

  7. Speak out on public issues. Establish a permanent study group to prepare and distribute brief position papers on selected major public issues such as global warming, crime, gun control, etc. Such papers, signed by supporting members, can be sent to selected involved officials and organizations as a means of responsible citizenship. (Chapter 22)

  8. Direct the churchís humanitarian outreach to those areas that appear most productive in effectively responding to critical needs. High priority projects typically respond to immediate critical needs or provide lasting returns that far exceed the involved cost. Food to counter starvation is an example of meeting an immediate critical need; immunization is an example of exceptional long-term value relative to cost.
          There is also importance in providing close-to-home, direct services. Hands-on field work, for example, is especially suitable for young people as they learn the joys of giving through personal involvement. Office and food service frequently provide the social contacts sought by older members. Such opportunities should be as broad as the congregationís interests.
          All "hands-on" volunteer work is immensely valuable in building permanently charitable members. However, catering to individual interests should be balanced by member awareness and response to the larger encompassing set of world and national needs to ensure deliberate knowledgeable choices. (Chapter 22, page 3 - 6)

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Operations Survey


Complex organizations, like churches, are bound to experience problems. Most are promptly resolved, but others invariably remain unattended. Personalities may contribute to the delays; in other instances conflicting positions. Large problems may be so encompassing that finding a solution seems overwhelming. Small situations may be sufficiently subtle to survive unrecognized. All-in-all, detection is a first step in any problem-solving scheme.

How does one proceed in discovering the more basic underlying problems congregations may encounter? Why not simply ask members what they feel is wrong and needs fixing? Such directness invariably produces results, but also typically generates expectations that may be difficult to fulfill. Better to be less direct, seeking areas of concern rather than details. Let an impartial trained study team bear the burden of discovering the specifics. A typical congregation survey at this introductory level is illustrated below.


Dear (church name) member,

You have been selected together with 24 other active and experienced congregation members to participate in a brief survey to identify the major strengths and possible weakness of our church. This general information will assist a future study team in their initial investigations. If you are unfamiliar with an activity or unsure how to evaluate, do not enter a rating. Please do not sign your name. Survey participants will not be identified.

Based on your experience as a congregation member, please grade the overall quality of the eight major church activities listed below by checking one of the four grade levels A, B, C, or D for each. Do not grade in comparison to other churches, but rather relative to the inherent capabilities within our church alone, considering its current staff, members, and resources.

Rate "A" all activities the church performs exceptionally well, near its maximum capability.

Rate "B" activities performed above average, but still with room for improvement.

Rate "C" activities performed adequately, but without any exceptional effort or achievements.

Rate "D" activities performed on a limited basis or essentially not at all.

Activity    A        B        C        D    
LEADERSHIP
  1. Pastoral guidance on the Christian path    
  2. Laity oversight and direction    
FUNCTIONS
  3. Worship Inspiring participatory services    
  4. Education Comprehensive curriculum for all ages    
  5. Evangelism Spreading the Word of God    
  6. Community Service Caring for the well-being of others    
  7. Fellowship Embracing and holding fast to individual members    
  8. Stewardship Giving of time, talent, and wealth    
RESOURCES
  Care and maintenance of the physical plant    
  Prudent employment and productive investment of resources    


Once the survey results are tabulated, the study team begins their exploration and analysis. Servant Leadership for Congregations can be of assistance in helping the team more fully understand the nature of effective operations in each of the functional areas. To this end we identify below the related chapters for each of the eight topic areas.

  1. Pastoral guidance (Chapters 1, 4, 9, 10, 13-16)
  2. Laity oversight and leadership (Chapters 1-12)
  3. Worship (Chapters 13-15)
  4. Education (Chapter 18)
  5. Evangelism (Chapters 20-21, 17)
  6. Fellowship (Chapters 16, 17)
  7. Community (Chapter 22)
  8. Stewardship (Chapter 19)

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Servant Leadership for Congregations

Kent Halstead

 

Preface††† .................................................................................................................................................. iii

Acknowledgements................................................................................................................................ iv

Contents† .................................................................................................................................................. vi

††††

The Christian Servant Leader

1.† Introduction

††††††††††††† Purpose....................................................................................................................................... 1-1

††††††††††††† Leadership Integral to Church Strategy................................................................................ 1-1

††††††††††††† Dependency on Congregational Acceptance.......................................................................... 1-2

††††††††† †† †††††† -Special Note to Clergy and Seminaries, Promotion of the Concept, Dependency on

†††††††† ††††††††† ††††††Grace and our Response................................................................................................... 1-2

†††† ††††††††† Implementation and Benefits.................................................................................................. 1-3

††††††††††††† Presentation Style and Use...................................................................................................... 1-4

††††††††† †† †††††† -Format, How to Use............................................................................................................ 1-4

2.About Congregations

††††††††††††† The Word for Congregations................................................................................................... 2-1

††††††††††††† Definition and Nature.............................................................................................................. 2-2

††††††††††††† Emerging Conditions................................................................................................................ 2-2

† ††††††††††† Meeting People's Needs........................................................................................................... 2-3

††††††††††††† Differences in Congregations................................................................................................. 2-4

†††††††††††††††††† -Traditions, Cultural Norms, Governing Structure................................................................ 2-4 ††††††††††††

††††††††††††† Distinctions Among Members................................................................................................. 2-6

††††††††† †† †††††† -Roles Played, Personal Orientations, Status Differences............................................ 2-6††††††††††††† † †††††††††††††††† †

††††††††††††† When are Congregations in Trouble? ................................................................................... 2-8

Part I.CONCEPT AND SPIRITUALITY OF SERVANT LEADERSHIP

3.† The Concept of the Servant as a Leader

††††††††††††† History of Servant Leadership................................................................................................. 3-1

††††††††† Original Tenets............................................................................................................................. 3-3

† ††††††††††† What is Servant Leadership? ................................................................................................... 3-3

† ††††††††††† Ten Characteristics of the Servant Leader............................................................................. 3-3

††††††††† † ††††††† -Overall Responsibility, Attitude, Managerial Skills..................................................... 3-3††††††††††††† †† †††††††††††††††

††††††††††††† The Inner Resources of Leaders.............................................................................................. 3-5

††††††††† Application to Congregations................................................................................................... 3-7

† ††††††††††† Seekers and Prophets............................................................................................................... 3-7

†† †††††††††† Vital Importance........................................................................................................................ 3-8

††††††††††††† Distinguishing Servant Leadership from Christian Discipleship...................................... 3-8

4.† The Priesthood of All Believers

†† †††††††††† Priesthood Defined................................................................................................................... 4-1

† ††††††††††† The Responsibilities of Priesthood......................................................................................... 4-3

†† †††††††††† The Office of Pastor.................................................................................................................. 4-3

†† †††††††††† The Holy Spirit......................................................................................................................... 4-5

Part II. THE NATURE OF SERVANT LEADERSHIP

5.† Bible Guidance and Derived Principles

††††††††† Biblical Guidance for Servant Leadership............................................................................. 5-1

††††††††† Principles of Christian Servant Leadership.......................................................................... 5-3

† ††††††††††† Love Jesus, Seek and Trust God's Will in All Things, Pray Constantly........................... 5-4

†† †††††††††† Be Loving, Kind to All.............................................................................................................. 5-4

†† †††††††††† See Things Whole, Seek the Truth........................................................................................ 5-5

††††††††††††† Commit to Excellence............................................................................................................... 5-6

†† †††††††††† Encourage the Active Involvement of All............................................................................... 5-7

†† †††††††††† Promote Democratic Action..................................................................................................... 5-8

††††††††††††† Commit to Lay Leadership and Its Development.................................................................. 5-9

††††††††††††† Combat Domination, Build Diversity, Encourage Agreement.......................................... 5-11

6.† Personal Dimensions of the Servant Leader

††††††††† The Personal Nature of Leadership........................................................................................ 6-1

††††††††††††† The Individuality of Leadership.............................................................................................. 6-2

††††††††††††† The Pre-eminent Qualities Needed....................................................................................... 6-2

††††††††††††† Know That You Are Called to Discipleship........................................................................... 6-3

††††††††††††† Consider Your Discipleship a Responsibility to Lead.......................................................... 6-3

††††††††† The Leader's Commitment........................................................................................................ 6-5

††††††††††††† Identify with the Organization............................................................................................... 6-5

†† †††††††††† Commit to the Leadership Office........................................................................................... 6-5

††††††††† Inner Resources of the Servant Leader................................................................................. 6-6

††† ††††††††† Be Caring, Respectful, and Encouraging...to the Very Least Person ................................. 6-6

†† †††††††††† Embrace the Posture of Humility............................................................................................ 6-7

†† †††††††††† Be Joyful, Hopeful, and at Peace............................................................................................. 6-8

†† †††††††††† Be Calm, Patient, and Understanding.................................................................................... 6-9

†† †††††††††† Be Totally Honest, Open-Minded, and Fair........................................................................ 6-10

†† †††††††††† Be Confident, Resolute, Courageous................................................................................... 6-10

††††††††† Leadership Attributes/Skills................................................................................................... 6-11

7.† Peremptory Authority

††††††††††††† Forms of Management.............................................................................................................. 7-3

††††††††† Peremptory Leaders, Indifferent Followers.......................................................................... 7-4

† ††††††††††† Faults of Leaders....................................................................................................................... 7-4

††††††††† †† †††††† -Virtues of Rank, Self-Reliance, Self-Protection.................................................................... 7-4††††††††††††† †† †††††††††††††††

††††††††††††† Weaknesses of Followers......................................................................................................... 7-5

††††††††† †† †††††† -Subservience, Over Sensitivity, Irresponsibility.................................................................. 7-5††††††††††††† †† ††††††

†† †††††††††† Destructive Social Mores......................................................................................................... 7-6

††††††††† †† †††††† -Discrimination, Tyranny of Tradition and Provincialism,

††††††††† †† †††††† †††††††Success in Human Terms................................................................................................. 7-6

†††† ††††††††† Abuses of Authority.................................................................................................................. 7-7

††††††††† †† †††††† -Bureaucratic Suffocation, Coercion, Manipulation.............................................................. 7-7††††††††††††† †† †††††††††††††††

††††††††† Safeguarding Democracy.......................................................................................................... 7-9

††††††††††††† The Threat Within.................................................................................................................... 7-9

††††††††††††† Counter Measures.................................................................................................................... 7-9

††††††††† †† †††††† -Biblical Guidance, Means of Correction............................................................................ 7-10

8.† Core Elements for Leading/Managing

††††††††††††† Servant Leadership Defined for Congregations................................................................... 8-1

††††††††††††† An Affinity for All Seasons...................................................................................................... 8-2

††††††††††††† Value of Servant Leadership................................................................................................... 8-3

††††††††† †† †††††† -Advantages of Servant Leadership, Disadvantages of Servant Leadership.......................... 8-3††††††††††††† ††

††††††††††††† How to Get Started.................................................................................................................... 8-5

††††††††††††† The Servant Leader Model for Congregations...................................................................... 8-6

††††††††† Management Functions, Organizational Structure,

†††††††††††††† and General Strategy............................................................................................................. 8-7

††††††††† † ††††††† -Know the Operating Environment, Define the Organizationís Mission and

†††††††††††††††††† †† †††Goals, Set Forth Supporting StatementsArticles of Faith and Operating

††††††††††††††††††††† ††††Principles, Establish the Organizational Structure and Job Descriptions,

†††††††††††††††††††††† †††Select Appropriate Management Style and Recruit and Prepare Leaders,

†††††††††††††††††††††† ††††Develop a Plan of Action, Oversee/Direct and Coordinate Operations......................... 8-7††††††††††††† †† †††††††††††††††

††††††††† Means of Leading...................................................................................................................... 8-11

††††††††††††† Dependency on God and Prayer ........................................................................................... 8-12

††††††††††††† Persuade and Involve Others in a Unified Common Effort .............................................. 8-13

†††† ††††††††† Provide Direction and Vision................................................................................................. 8-13

††††††††† †† †††††† -Vision and Foresight........................................................................................................... 8-14

††††††††††††† Listen Attentively and Responsively..................................................................................... 8-14

††††††††††††† Focus on Priorities and Results............................................................................................. 8-15

††††††††††††† Be Alert to Problems, Solving in an Orderly, Scholarly Manner.................................... 8-17

††††††††††††† Manage Conflict; Be Generous and Conciliatory.............................................................. 8-19

†††††††††††††††††† -The Nature of Disagreements, Sources and Severity of Conflicts

†††††††††††††††††† †† Means of Lessening Conflicts, Conflict Sources Within Congregations

†††††††† ††††††††† †††Rules for Conflict Resolution, Location of Related Content............................................. 8-19

†††††††††††††††††† Part III.† CHURCH STRUCTURE AND LEADERSHIP ROLES

9.† Statements and Organization

††††††††† Church Statements..................................................................................................................... 9-1

††††††††††††† Articles of Faith......................................................................................................................... 9-2

†† †††††††††† Emerging Conditions................................................................................................................ 9-5

††††††††††††† Mission Statement and Directional Concepts (Objectives)................................................ 9-6

††††††††††††† Operating Principles.............................................................................................................. 9-10

††††††††††††† Church Policy.......................................................................................................................... 9-11

††††††††††††† Public Policy............................................................................................................................ 9-12

††††††††† Church Constitution and Organization................................................................................. 9-13

††††††††††††† Church Constitution.............................................................................................................. 9-14

††††††††††††† Job Descriptions...................................................................................................................... 9-17

10.† Leadership Roles

††††††††† A Common Binding Mission.................................................................................................... 10-1

††††††††††††† A Shared Ministry.................................................................................................................. 10-1

††††††††††††† Democracy, the Foundation of the Servant-Led Congregation......................................... 10-3

††††††††††††† The Recruitment/Election Process........................................................................................ 10-5

††††††††††††† Scripture for Leaders.............................................................................................................. 10-7

††††††††† Four Leadership Elements...................................................................................................... 10-9

††††††††††††† The Clergy-A Sacred Calling.............................................................................................. 10-9

†††††††††††††††††† -United in Two Interlocking Roles, The Key Role of Nurturing,

†††††††††††††††††† †††††† Specific Responsibilities, Personal Qualities............................................................. 10-10

††††††††††††† Role of Trustees.................................................................................................................... 10-14

††††††††† †† †††††† -Mission and Authority, Membership and Officers, Diplomacy,

†††††††††††††††††† ††††††† Trustee Responsibilities............................................................................................. 10-14††††††††††††† †† †††††††††††††††

††††††††††††† Role of the Church Council................................................................................................. 10-18

††††††††† †† †††††† -Council Mission and Authority, Council Membership and Desired

†††††††††††††††††† †††††† Attributes, Council Modus Operandi, Council President,

†††††††††††††††††† ††††††† Council Responsibilities............................................................................................. 10-18††††††††††††† †† †††††††††††††††

††††††††††††† Committees-the Church's Working Force....................................................................... 10-24

††††††††† † ††††††† -Committee Missions, Committee Membership and Chairmanship,

†††††††††††††††††† ††††††† Committee Authority, Committee Strategy, Committee

†††††††††††††††††††††††††† Responsibilities, Ad Hoc Special Task Forcesoc HHH†† ........................................................... 10-24

Part IV.† LEADERSHIP IN PRACTICE

11.† Communications and Planning

†††††††††† Effective Communications..................................................................................................... 11-1

††††††††††††† The Art of Dialog and Receptive Listening.......................................................................... 11-2

††††††††††††† Leading Group Discussion..................................................................................................... 11-3

††††††††††††† Encouraging Vision, Creativity, and Criticism................................................................... 11-4

††††††††††††† The Ombudsman..................................................................................................................... 11-6

††††††††††††† Open Forums/Critiques......................................................................................................... 11-8

†††††††††† Long-range Planning and Self-Study................................................................................... 11-9

††††††††††††† Nature of Long-Range Planning......................................................................................... 11-10

††††††††††††† Self-Study.............................................................................................................................. 11-12

††††††††† †† †††††† -Self-Study Procedures...................................................................................................... 11-13

12. How to Conduct Meetings and Reach Decisions

†††††††††† How to Conduct Meetings....................................................................................................... 12-1

††††††††††††† Pre-Meeting Preparation....................................................................................................... 12-2

††††††††††††† The Meeting Proper................................................................................................................ 12-4

†††††††††††††††††† -Deliberations, Alternatives to Consensus.......................................................................... 12-6††††††††††††† †† †††††††††††††††

††††††††††††† Post-Meeting Follow-On........................................................................................................ 12-9

††††††††† Role of Moderator..................................................................................................................... 12-9

††††††††† †† †††††† -Role of Moderator at Structured Meetings, Moderator Duties,

†††††††††††††††††† †††††††† The Philosophy of Christian Deliberations................................................................. 12-9

 

 

Functional Responsibilities

 


PART V.† WORSHIP

13.† The Worship Service

†††††††††† The Nature of Worship............................................................................................................ 13-2

††††††††††††† Role of Traditions................................................................................................................... 13-3

††††††††††††† Attributes for an Effective (God-Focused, People-Oriented) Service............................... 13-4

†††††††††† Design Topics and Procedures............................................................................................. 13-7

†††††††††† Elements of Worship............................................................................................................... 13-9

††††††††††††† The Setting.............................................................................................................................. 13-9

††††††††† †† †††††† -Service Bulletin; Symbols, Art, Color, and Ministerial Dress;

†††††††††††††††††† †††††† Sanctuary DesignLighting, Sound, and Seating........................................................... 13-9††††††††††††† †† †††††††††††††††

††††††††††††† The Service............................................................................................................................ 13-12

††††††††† †† †††††† -Entering, Reflection and Meditation, Prelude and Postlude, Words of

†††††††††††††††††† ††††† Welcome, Music and Processionals, Liturgy, Prayer, Scripture Lesson,

†††††††††††††††††† †††††† Meditation, Holy Eucharist, Announcements/Offering Collection,

†††††††††††††††††† †††††† Passing of the Peace, Personal Intercessions and Laying on of Hands,

††††††††††††† ††††††††††† Personal Testimony, Benediction and Closure............................................................ 13-13

14.† New Needs, New Responses

†††† ††††††††† What are People Looking For?.............................................................................................. 14-1

††††††††† †††† Our Response.......................................................................................................................... 14-3

††††††††††††† Derived Benefits of Attractive New Service Configurations............................................. 14-4

††††††††††††† Cautions in Implementation................................................................................................. 14-5

††††††††† †††† Implementation....................................................................................................................... 14-5

†††† The Common Ground..................................................................................................................... 14-6

††††††††† †† †††††† -Fundamentals, Hospitality, The Gathering Place, Worship Construct............................. 14-6††††††††††††† †† ††††††

†††† Contemporary Innovations........................................................................................................... 14-8

†††† ††††† †††††††† -Mission, Ambiance, Inclusiveness, Bulletin, Service Style, Liturgy

†††††††††††††††††† ††††† †and Holy Communion, Spoken Word, Multi-Media, Facilities.................................... 14-9††††††††††††† † ††††††††††††††††

†††† ††††††††† Guidelines for Introducing and Developing Contemporary Worship............................ 14-15

15.† The Spoken Word and Prayer

††††††††† The Nature of Preaching.......................................................................................................... 15-1

††††††††††††† Definition................................................................................................................................. 15-2

††††††††††††† Importance of Preaching........................................................................................................ 15-3

†††††††††† ††† The Preaching Domain.......................................................................................................... 15-3

††††††††† The Interactive Elements......................................................................................................... 15-4

††††††††† †††† The Pastor-Congregation Bond............................................................................................. 15-4

††††††††††††† The Preaching-Listening Synergy........................................................................................ 15-5

††††††††††††† Partners in Proclamation....................................................................................................... 15-6

†††††††††††††††††† -Attentiveness, Response, Advisement.............................................................................. 15-6††††††††††††† †† †††††††††††††††

†††† †††† Pastoral Preparedness............................................................................................................ 15-7

††††††††††††† Posture and Approach............................................................................................................. 15-7

††††††††† Delivery Style and Skills........................................................................................................... 15-9

†††††††††††††††††† -Ten Guides for Effective Delivery................................................................................... 15-11

††††††††† Content Design......................................................................................................................... 15-12

†††† ††††††††† Types of Sermons.................................................................................................................. 15-13

††††††††††††† Principal Messages............................................................................................................... 15-14

†††††††††††††††††† -What Are the Principal Bible Messages? ........................................................................ 15-15

††††††††††††† Sources................................................................................................................................... 15-17

†† †††††† ††††††††† -Available Resources, Creativity and Citing, Search and Maintain................................... 15-18††††††††††††† †† †††††††††††††††

††††††††††††† The Planning/Writing Process............................................................................................ 15-19

††††††††† †† † †††† -The Enabling Retreat, The Topic Agenda, Supporting Mechanics

†††††††††††††††††† ††††† ††Guidelines for Content Preparation............................................................................ 15-20††††††††††††† †† †††††††††††††††

††††††††† Leading Prayer......................................................................................................................... 15-26

PART VI.† DISCIPLESHIP

16.† Parish Life

††††††††† Nature of the Christian Community....................................................................................... 16-1

††††††††† The Meaning of Membership.................................................................................................. 16-2

††††††††† The Embracing Mission of Caring and Involvement.......................................................... 16-3

††††††††††††† The Essential Elements of the Christian Community..................................................... 16-41

††††††††††††† Means for Accomplishment................................................................................................... 16-7

17.† Small Group Ministries

††††††††† ††† Definitions............................................................................................................................... 17-1

††††††††††††† Role of Small Groups............................................................................................................. 17-2

††††††††† †††† Small Group Formation......................................................................................................... 17-3

††††††††††††† Small Group Dynamics.......................................................................................................... 17-4

†††††††††††††††††† -Group Ambiance, Required Leadership, Mentor Training................................................ 17-4††††††††††††† †† †††††††††††††††

††††††††††††† Responsibilities and Means of Mentoring........................................................................... 17-6

†††††††††††††††††† -Mentoring Duties, Personal Temperament and Style, Tools of Effective Mentoring....... 17-6††††††††††††† †† †††††††††††††††

††††††††† Special Need Response........................................................................................................... 17-8

†††††††††††††††††† -Youth and Young Adults, Singles, Those in Need of Special Care.................................... 17-9

18.† Christian Education

††††††††† †††† The Role of Christian Education.......................................................................................... 18-1

†††††††††††††††††† -The Special Opportunity of Adult Education, Promoting Christian Education................ 18-2††† ††††††††††††††††††

††††††††††††† Managing the Church School............................................................................................... 18-3

††††††††††††† Curriculum Design................................................................................................................. 18-4

††††††††††††† †††† -Curriculum Design Procedures, Curriculum Taxonomy..................................................... 18-6

††††††††††††† Learning and Teaching Skills............................................................................................... 18-7

†††††††††††††††††† -Creating Effective Learning Conditions.............................................................................. 18-8

††††††††††††† Reframing Confirmation....................................................................................................... 18-9

19. †Our Call to Stewardship

††††††††† †††† The Nature of Managing Godís Gifts with Charity............................................................ 19-1

††††††††††††† The Harsh Reality................................................................................................................... 19-4

††††††††††††† Stewardship Committee Duties............................................................................................ 19-5

††††††††††††† Means of Gaining Everyoneís Involvement......................................................................... 19-6

†††††††††††††††††† -Responding to Godís Call, Reaching Out to Embrace All, Guiding and

†††††††††††††††††† †††††† Supporting, Ensuring Opportunities and Effective Employment,

†††††††††† ††††††††††††††† Securing Commitment and Providing Recognition, Financial Giving............................ 19-6††††††††††††† †† †††††††††††††††

††††††††††††† Forms of Serving................................................................................................................... 19-10

†††††††††††††††††† -Outreach, Nurturing, Liturgical, Management.................................................................. 19-11††††††††††††† †† †††††††††††††††

††††††††††††† Securing Financial Support................................................................................................ 19-12

†††††††††††††††††† -The Reality of Our Wealth and Failure to Share, A Permanent Condition

†††††††††††††††††† ††††† ††of Faith and Self-Discipline, Why People Give, How to Become

††††††††††††† †††††††††††† Charitable Givers, Charting, Special Fund-Raising Campaigns, Hiring

†††††††††††††††††† †††††††† Fund-Raising Consultants, Special Means................................................................ 19-12

20.† Evangelism─Basics and the Inreaching Responsibility

††††††††††††† The Fertile Field..................................................................................................................... 20-2

††††††††††††† The Commission..................................................................................................................... 20-3

††††††††††††† The Evangelism Committee.................................................................................................. 20-8

††††††††† The Inreach Responsibility...................................................................................................... 20-9

††††††††††††† The Embracing Congregation............................................................................................... 20-9

†††††††††††††††††† -An Inviting, Responsive Reception, A Compelling Service, Dynamic

†††††††††††††††††† †††††† †Preaching, Follow-up Ministry for Visitors............................................................... 20-10††††††††††††† †† †††††††††††††††

††††††††††††† The Sustaining Inreach Responsibility............................................................................. 20-13

†††††††††††††††††† -Nurturing New Members, Ministry for Inconsistent and Inactive Members................. 20-13

21.† Evangelism─the Outreach Challenge

††††††††† The Calling................................................................................................................................... 21-2

††††††††††††† A Hostile Environment........................................................................................................... 21-2

†††††††††††††††††† -Recipient Barriers, Messenger Barriers.............................................................................. 21-2††††††††††††† †† †††††††††††††††

††††††††††††† A Task of Many Demand........................................................................................................ 21-4

††††††††††††† Recruiting and Training........................................................................................................ 21-5

††††††††††††† Prepared by Prayer and Empowered by the Holy Spirit..................................................... 21-6

††††††††† Witnessing.................................................................................................................................. 21-6

††††††††††††† The Available Means.............................................................................................................. 21-6

†††††††††††††††††† -Media, Personal.................................................................................................................. 21-7††††††††††††† †† †††††††††††††††

††††††††††††† The Rudiments of Field Witnessing..................................................................................... 21-8

††††††††††††† The Message.......................................................................................................................... 21-11

†††††††††††††††††† -Pragmatic Content, Spiritual Content, Closing Prayer..................................................... 21-11††††††††††††† †† †††††††††††††††

††††††††††††† Follow-on Gatherings........................................................................................................... 21-15

††††††††††††† Pastoral Role.......................................................................................................................... 21-16

††††††††††††† A Responsive Congregation and Religious Service.......................................................... 21-17

††††††††††††† The Flyer Message................................................................................................................ 21-17

22. Community Ministry

††††††††††††† The Community Ministry Committee................................................................................. 22-2

††††††††††††† Setting Community Service Priorities................................................................................ 22-3

††††††††††††† Community Ministry Management...................................................................................... 22-5

23. Administration and Property

††††††††††††† Personnel Administration...................................................................................................... 23-1

††††††††††††† Finance Administration......................................................................................................... 23-2

†††††††††††††††††† -Funding and Budget Comparisons, Salary Schedule, Budget

†††††††††††††††††† ††††† †Presentation, Salary Prorating, Investment Strategy..................................................... 23-2 †††††††††††††††

††††††††††††† Property Administration........................................................................................................ 23-6

 

APPENDICES:

A.† Christian Music††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††

††††††††††††† Selected Christian Music....................................................................................................... A-3

B. Job Descriptions

††††††† †† Senior Pastor............................................................................................................................ B-2

††††††††††††† Director of Music/Organist..................................................................................................... B-4

††††††††††††† Congregation Council President............................................................................................ B-5

††††††††††††† Common Committee Elements.............................................................................................. B-6

††††††††††††† Parish Life Committee............................................................................................................ B-7

†††††††††† ††† Worship, Music, and Arts Committee................................................................................... B-9

††††††††††††† Education Committee............................................................................................................ B-10

††††††††††††† Stewardship Committee........................................................................................................ B-11

††††††††††††† Evangelism Committee.......................................................................................................... B-12

††††††††††††† Community Service Committee........................................................................................... B-13

††††††††††††† Youth Committee................................................................................................................... B-14

†††††††††† ††† Finance Committee............................................................................................................... B-15

††††††††††††† Property Committee............................................................................................................... B-15

C.† The Renewal Reader ............................................................................................................... C-1

 

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Graphics
Symbols by Walter E. Gast.
Stained glass by Anatoli Balukh.